Endoscopic Urinary Stone Surgery
What Is Urinary Stone or Kidney Stone ?
The urinary system consist of kidney, ureter and bladder (KUB). Stone is generally formed in kidney by aggregation of small crystals in kidney PCS and from there may migrate in ureter or bladder. Kidney stones are abnormal, hard, chemical deposits that form inside the kidneys. This condition also is called nephrolithiasis or urolithiasis. However, the deposits can be much larger – the size of a pea, a marble or even larger. Some of these larger stones are too big to be flushed from the kidney.
What are the different types of stone?
There are several different types of stones. They form for a variety of reasons. Kidney stones are grouped into four different families, based on their chemical composition:
- Calcium oxalate stones – These stones account for most kidney stones. Several factors increase the risk of calcium oxalate stone formation in the kidney:
- Uric acid stones – Uric acid stones form because of an abnormally high concentration of uric acid in the urine. They are more likely to occur in people who have gout because of an over production of uric acid. Gout is a disorder in which uric acid builds up in the blood and gets deposited in joints.
- Cystine stones – These rare stones are the least common type of kidney stones. They are composed of the amino acid cystine. Cystine is a building block of proteins. Cystine stones are caused by an inherited defect.
Common Symptoms of Urinary Stones
- Severe pain in the back or side
- Nausea and vomiting
- Blood in the urine (urine may look pink, red, or brown)
- The location of pain may shift downward, closer to the groin. This usually indicates that the stone has traveled downward in the ureter and is now closer to the bladder. As the stone approaches the bladder, you may feel:
- A stronger urge to urinate
- A burning sensation when urinating
Expertise of Dr Waheed Zaman
- Endoscopic Removal of Kidney Stones
- Retrograde Intrarenal Surgery Procedure(RIRS)
- Extracarporeal shock wave lithotripsy- Shock waves applied externally break kidney stones into smaller fragments. The fragments are then swept away in the urine stream.
- Percutaneous ultrasonic lithotripsy – A narrow, tube-like instrument is passed through a small incision in the back to the kidney. There, ultrasound breaks up the kidney stones. The stone fragments are then removed.
- Laser lithotripsy – A laser breaks up stones in the ureter. The stones then pass on their own.
- Ureteroscopy – A very small telescope is inserted into the urethra as it makes its way to the bladder. The doctor finds the opening of the affected and guides the scope up the ureter until it reaches the stone. The stone is then either fragmented or removed.